Meertens Instituut


Nederlands | MAND atlas | cartographyGTRP transcriptions

MAND data: Goeman-Taeldeman-Van Reenen-project

more GTRP: CD-ROM | items | localities | speakers | transcriptions per locality | per item

The Goeman-Taeldeman-Van Reenen-project consisted of
  • registration on tape of the pronunciations of words in the many regional varieties within the Dutch language area
  • transcription on paper of recordings and
  • coded data entry for a selection of 613 dialect recordings.
Read on or click to: some figures | cooperation | data features | participants | publications

For an impression of spoken dialect (NB: non-GTRP) we may refer to the Institute's "Speaking Map" to be found via "Databanken" or homepage/sitemap.

The 1.876 items of the questionnaire mainly exist of nouns and verbs but 22 sentences and 106 adjectival word groups are included as well. The database has alltogether more than 1.1 million transcribed elements. When each (un)definite article and personal pronoun is taken into account the total amounts to 2 million 'words'.

More in new window:
motivation & history
localities gif
localities html
fieldwork method
dialect genome
More on importance and cd-rom (Dutch):
Respons 2003
All selected recordings have been narrowly transcribed in accordance with the "International Phonetic Alphabet" as trained by dr. P.Th. van Reenen at the Free University, Amsterdam. A training guide was adapted from W.H. Chapman's "Introduction to Practical Phonetics" (of the Summer Institute of Linguistics).

A way to use keyboard characters (of the lower ASCII range) was developed, especially for this project. The so-called "Keyboard IPA" (KIPA, K-IPA) proved to be extremely useful as well as quite flexible in expanding the inventory during the project. We should like to call for further usage of KIPA (with advantages over the later developed (X)SAMPA) in other projects. Don't hesitate to contact us. → K-IPA

fieldwork method
All sound recordings have been digitalized. Compression methods are being looked into and compared for data loss.

For an impression of spoken dialect (NB: non-GTRP) we may refer to the Institute's "Speaking Map" to be found via "Databanken" or homepage/sitemap.



The project grew from cooperation of the Meertens Instituut-KNAW with

Co-financing came from


Data features

Below are some graphics showing tests of reliability and validity of our data. (At the time only material from the Netherlands were available.)

First we show the number of recordings and transcriots per year, per fieldworker and next per trancriber.

All Belgian recordings took place between 1990 and 1993.


Red circles (above and below) accentuate those features marking reliability of the transcriptions: the short period of time in which the bulk of recordings were made and the fact that just two persons already transcribed 40 percent of all (Dutch) recordings. See the list of publications for titles on the subject of testing the reliability of these data.

From Goeman 1999 (chapter 3, 92-93) now follow two graphics showing comparisons between the two main Dutch transcribers, Van Houten (H) en Van Vliet (V), and their transcription master P.Th. Van Reenen (R). It appears that they hardly differ in their excellent hearing qualities.

map vHouten vVliet

Next some graphics (taken from the same dissertation, Goeman 1999, chapter 2) for showing the validity of the recorded dialects.
For explanation and considerations (eg. concerning the different styles of speech during an interview): see reference.

First a graphic of quality judgements by fieldworkers; Goeman 1999 reports (chapter 2, p. 70) that there are no significant relations between these judgements and age, gender, profession of speakers.

Next graphics show the structure of the group of speakers within the project and the structure of the expected overall group of Dutch dialect speakers; there is a reasonable match.

The division of recorded localities according to population size more or less resembles the overall one for the Netherlands:

The percentages of women and men within the project resemble those of the Netherlands. The project does have a bias towards older males yet this was included in the project's aims.

The numbers of men and women per age group matches more or less those within the estimated groups of dialect speakers in the Netherlands (on the basis of De Beukelaar and MŸnstermann, "De positie van het dialect in Bredevoort", in: Staring Instituut (red) 1988 "Bredevoort, een Heelrijkheid"). Albeit that there are only a few young speakers. Again in accordance with the aims of the project directed towards the older speaker:

Regarding the division of professional groups again there is a reasonable match between the project and the overall picture for the Netherlands. First comes a graphic of the highest attained education in the Netherlands, next a graphic of the project's speakers according to the social prestige of their (or their partner's) profession (again confined to Dutch speakers only):

Above mentioned research Goeman 1999 assigned to each Dutch speaker an index of social prestige following UltŽe & Sixma 1983 ("Een Beroepsprestigeschaal voor Nederland in de Jaren Tachtig. Mens & Maatschappij 58: 360-82) who based themselves on the social prestige of the time of publication. When no profession was indicated the index of the partner (when possible) was used.



professional prestige conversions


Questionnaire design:
  • dr A.C.M. Goeman, Meertens Instituut
  • prof dr J. Goossens, Leuven
  • dr G. Kocks, Groningen
  • prof dr J. Taeldeman, Gent en
  • prof dr R. Willemyns, Brussel.

Coordination of fieldwork:

  • dr A.C.M. Goeman, Meertens Instituut
  • prof dr J. Goossens, Leuven
  • prof dr P.Th. van Reenen, VU en
  • prof dr J. Taeldeman, Gent.

Project support:

  • mw A. Wams-Verkerk

Fieldworkers and transcribers for the Netherlands:

  • Els van Houten (81 localities) en Peter van Vliet (122 localities) plus
  • Joke Aben, Boudewijn van den Berg, Jan Buitenhuis, Dolf Coppes, Jo Daan, M. Engelen, Margo Fransen, Liesbeth Gijsbers, Ton Goeman, Irene GrŸnewald, Ben Hermans, R. Hofstee, Anke Jongkind, Inge Kemperman, Anneke Klaassen, Marjan Klamer, Gerard Kocks, Joep Kruijssen, M. Lutz, Alice Ottow, Erwin Matthijs, Margot van Mulken, B. Pijn, S. van der Ree, Karin van Reenen, Piet van Reenen, Annelies De Reus, Jaap de Rooij, Marlies Schellevis, M. Stols, Herma Veenhof, Jaap Veerman, Anneke de Vries, Carole van Zaanen

For Belgium:

  • VŽronique de Tier and Rob Belemans with incidental assistance of R. van de Kerckhove, K. Decoodt, H. Smet - and Joke Verbeek for the scoring of Limburgian tones and Geert Verleyen for some part of the data entry.

For Friesland:

  • Durk Veenstra (recordings), Durk Veenstra and Arjen Versloot (recordings and transcription). Data entry assistence came from Wytske Rypma and Doete Stienstra.




names have faces
The one article to refer to:
Goeman, A. en J. Taeldeman 1996
"Fonologie en morfologie van de Nederlandse dialecten. Een nieuwe materiaalverzameling en twee nieuwe atlasprojecten." in: Taal en Tongval 48: 38-59.

The address on the Internet to refer to:

Reference to the data may also be made by means of:
Berg, B.L. van den 2003
Phonology & Morphology of Dutch & Frisian Dialects in 1.1 million transcriptions. Goeman-Taeldeman-Van Reenen project 1980-1995, Meertens Instituut Electronic Publications in Linguistics 3, Amsterdam: Meertens Instituut. (CD-ROM)

A list of publications → MAND atlas → publicaties

Some examples of research → importance


GTRP: CD-ROM | items | localities | speakers | transcriptions per locality | per item

Nederlands | MAND atlas | cartographyGTRP transcriptions