GTRP dialect-transcripties 1980-1995

Etymological criteria and coding

by A. Goeman

In the GTRP-Selection application you may search on patterns of vocalism, vocalism plus special following consonantism, or a special consonant(cluster) after a certain vowel. This may be done on the basis of orthographical Standard Dutch forms, but if your interests lie in the historical background of the dialect realizations you can do that also from an etymological viewpoint.

One of the aims of the project was to provide data for the analysis of the phonological patterns and processes of the Dutch and Frisian dialects.

This was accomplished by formulating a grid formed by putting (a) every vowel against (b) every imaginable following consonantism in the word. This is a representation of the word's make-up in terms of the distribution according to following consonantism. At the same time, we gave attention to a balanced vowel distribution in terms of wordinitial consonantism. However, allophonic variation according tot prevocalic consonantism is rather limited.

Short preview:
aVowels are Westgermanic reconstructions.
-Without umlaut
+With umlaut
*Double etymology
aaa\ft/chtAfter \ the Middelnederlands consonantal context is given, sometimes with contexts grouped together by /. For more on the seemingly hybrid combination of WGM vowels and MNL consonants read on.
morfumlIndicates historical umlaut and analogical umlaut as well.

Vowels in the etymologies are Westgermanic (WGM) reconstructions based on internal and external (i.e. comparative) reconstructions. Middelnederlands (MNL) appears too diversified to serve as a reference.

Consonantal contexts though are taken from Middelnederlands because synchronic combinatorial variants will be easier recognized in MNL than in WGM. (MNL vowels are much more diversified than MNL consonants.)

Naturally, systematic gaps exist in this grid due to cooccurrence restrictions. Therefore, for some cases no exemplifying words can be given.

The orthography of the Standard language may serve us, especially in the case of a contrastive viewpoint with the Dutch Standard language. But we really need a finer reference system for phonological reasons, the more so if we want to compare 613 different dialects divided into two stocks (Netherlandic/Dutch and Friasian) and into several dialect groupings of their own (Groningian, Drentish, Stellingwerfish, Sallandish, Twentish, Achterhoekish, Liemers', Veluwe's, Betuwe's, Limburgian, Brabantish, Flemish-Brabantish, West-Flemish, East-Flemish, Franco-Flemish, Zeelandish, South-Hollandish, North-Hollandish, Utrechtish, and Clay-Frisian, Woods-Frisian, City-Frisian, Gaasterlandic.

For the vocalism the reference system chosen
    - is the reconstructed Westgermanic etymological value (*Wgerm.)
    - thus, we have Westgermanic diphthongs (e.g. ai, au, eo, iu)
    - originally long vowels
    - originally short vowels
    - originally short vowels lengthened in open syllable (OSL)
    - and, if applicable, all with or without umlaut (if containing an umlautfactor in the original wordfinal syllable)

For the consosntism the reference system chosen
    - is the Middle Netherlandic consonantism
    - thus the effect of the second, High German Consonant Shift is not applicable
    - and where e.g. original -mb (cfr. lamb) counts as -m, as in Standard Dutch
    - and palatalization as in Frisian tsjerke (cfr. church, Standard Dutch kerk) is not seen

Early Latin or French loans are indicated

Examples (for complete coverage of coding see below):
    geloven 'believe':     au+\f/v
    kaas 'cheese':    aaa+\s/z

For considerations and discussion see:

Goeman, A. 1984, Klank- Vormverschijnselen van het Zoetermeers, Amsterdam
Taeldeman, J. 1977, "Register(s) bij de RND als materiaalverzameling voor klankgeografisch onderzoek", in: Taal en Tongval 29, 1-27.

Vocalism and coding

    +: with umlaut
    -: no umlaut

*Westg. Short Vowels
    a-     short a no umlaut
    u-     short u no umalut
    o-     short o no umlaut
    i    short i
    e     short e
    a+ (.e)    short a with umlaut
    u+    short u with umlaut

*Westg. Short Vowels lengthened by OSL
    ee    lengthened short, OSL from i, e; and from a+(.e) with umlaut
    aa-    lengthened short, OSL from a- no umlaut
    oo-    lengthened short, OSL from o- no umlaut
    uu-    lengthened short, OSL from u- no umlaut
    uu+    lengthened short, OSL from u+ with umlaut

*Westg. Long Vowels
    iii    originally long i
    uuu-    originally long no umlaut
    uuu+    originally long with umlaut
    aaa-    originally long no umlaut
    aaa+    originally long with umlaut
    ooo-    originally long no umlaut
    ooo+    originally long with umlaut
    eee2    originally long (class later greater by vowelcontraction)

*Westg. Diphthongs
    eo    diphthong
    iu    diphthong
    ai-    diphthong no umlaut
    ai+    diphthong with umlaut
    au-    diphthong no umlaut (Latin loans: ooo < Lat. au included)
    au+    diphthong with umlaut
    ui2    diphthong with different origins

For some vowels, the etymological origin is either unclear or the dialects show already doublets in the *Wgerm. stage. In that case the most probable value is listed first, and after this one, the alternative(s) are given, preceded by a '*'.

Consonantism (following the vowel) and coding (after etymological vowel and preceded by '\', alternatives are separated by '/'; CC : consonant cluster)

voiceless/voiced pairs MDu.t/d
morpheme final

Morphological annotations in Etymology Codes

(1) MORFUML: Umlaut in flexion or derivation due to umlautfactor, but also the possibility of umlaut by anology or as a morphological signal without such a factor.

A listing of morphological umlaut in the strict historical sense (thus due to umlautfactor) in a certain morphological form, while other forms lack such a factor:

These Codings are given after the etymology of the vowel; alternatives ate preceded by an '*'

Strictly Historical MORFUML

*Wgerm a+
    katje (dim.)
    glaasje (dim.)
    appeltje (dim.)
    zakken (subst. plur.)
    hij valt (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    hij houdt
    stalletje (dim.)
    stallen (subst. plur.)
    karretje (dim.)
    mannetje (dim.)
    kammetje (dim.)
    kammen (subst. plur.)
    hij wast (zich) (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    kalfje (dim.)
    kalveren (subst. plur.)
    baardje (dim.)
    kaartje (dim.)
    handje (dim.)
    kantje (dim.)
    hij vangt (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    hij hangt (3. sing. pres. ind.)

*Wgerm. u+/o+
    potje (dim.)
    potten (subst. plur.)
    bokken (subst. plur.)
    hij komt (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    kommetje (dim.)
    bosje (dim.)
    bossen (subst. plur.)
    dochtertje (dim.)
    poortje (dim.)
    woordje (dim.)
    woorden (subst. plur.)
    dorpje (dim.)
    hondje (dim.)
    honden (subst. plur.)
    pompje (dim.)
    jongetje (dim.)
    korstje (dim.)

*Wgerm. ee (MORFUML < aa+; also non-umlaut-breaking (vertical umlaut) in verbs indicated)
    vaatje (dim.)
    blaadje (dim.)
    bladeren (subst. plur.)
    hij eet (3. sing. pres. ind.)(breaking)
    haasje (dim.)
    glaasje (dim.)
    hij leest (3. sing. pres. ind.)(breaking)
    aapje (dim.)
    hij geeft (3. sing. pres. ind.)(breaking)
    hij maakt (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    jij breekt (3. sing. pres. ind.)(breaking)
    hij breekt (3. sing. pres. ind.)(breaking)
    hij steekt (3. sing. pres. ind.)(breaking)
    zaagje (dim.)
    hij draagt (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    hij haalt (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    hij steelt (3. sing. pres. ind.)(breaking)
    hij vaart (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    haantje (dim.)
    kamertje (dim.)

*Wgerm. uu+/oo+
    nootje (dim.)
    vogeltje (dim.)
    zoontje (dim.)

*Wgerm. uuu+
    ruitje (dim.)
    hij sluit (3. sing. pres. ind.)(breaking)
    huisje (dim.)
    muisje (dim.)
    huizen (subst. plur.)
    muizen (subst. plur.)
    hij kruipt (3. sing. pres. ind.)(breaking)
    duifje (dim.)
    buikje (dim.)
    muurtje (dim.)
    duimpje (dim.)

*Wgerm. aaa+
    draadje (dim.)
    draden (subst. plur.)
    blaasje (dim.)
    hij blaast (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    schaapje (dim.)
    haakje (dim.)
    haken (subst.plur.)
    hij vraagt (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    paaltje (dim.)
    naaldje (dim.)

*Wgerm. ooo+
    voetje (dim.)
    voeten (subst. plur.)
    hoedje (dim.)
    hoeden (subst. plur.)
    hij roept (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    doekje (dim.)
    doeken (subst. plur.)
    stoeltje (dim.)
    stoelen (subst. plur.)
    schoentje (dim.)
    bloempje (dim.)

*Wgerm. au+
    pootje (dim.)
    poten (subst. plur.)
    broodje (dim.)
    oden (subst. plur.)
    roosje (dim.)
    doosje (dim.)
    hoopje (dim.)
    hopen (subst. plur.)
    hij koopt (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    hij loopt (3. sing. pres. ind.)
    oogje (dim.)
    oortje (dim.)
    boontje (dim.)
    boompje (dim.)
    bomen (subst. plur.)

(2) Classes of Strong and 'Reduplicating' Verbs with their ablaut pattern(s) and extra comments
(between brackets not in code (1-6 correspond historically with pattern I-VI)
    (Class) I        ii - ai - i - i
    (Class) II        eo/iu/uuu - au - u - o
    (Class) III        e/i - a - u - u/o
    (Class) IV        e/i - a - aaa- o
    (Class) V        e/i - a - aaa - e
    (Class) VI        a/e - ooo - ooo - a
    RED (1)    ai - ei - ei - ai
    RED (2)    au - eu - eu - au
    RED (3)    a - e - e - a
    RED (4)    -------gap
    RED (5)    aaa - eee - eee - aaa
    RED (6)    ooo - eu - eu - ooo

(3) Classes of Modals with their restricted ablaut patterns
    PRETPRES (1)    ai - i
    PRETPRES (2)    -------gap
    PRETPRES (3)    a - u
    PRETPRES (4)    a - u
    PRETPRES (5)    ------ gap
    PRETPRES (6)    oo